Research articles for the 2021-06-21

Closed-form Solutions for an Explicit Modern Ideal Tontine with Bequest Motive
John Dagpunar

In this paper I extend the work of Bernhardt and Donnelly (2019) dealing with modern explicit tontines, as a way of providing income under a specified bequest motive, from a defined contribution pension pot. A key feature of the present paper is that it relaxes the assumption of fixed proportions invested in tontine and bequest accounts. In making the bequest proportion an additional control function I obtain, hitherto unavailable, closed-form solutions for the fractional consumption rate, wealth, bequest amount, and bequest proportion under a constant relative risk averse utility. I show that the optimal bequest proportion is the product of the optimum fractional consumption rate and an exponentiated bequest parameter. I show that under certain circumstances, such as a very high bequest motive, a life-cycle utility maximisation strategy will necessitate negative mortality credits analogous to a member paying life insurance premiums. Typical scenarios are explored using UK Office of National Statistics life tables.

Corporate Lending in January-April 2021
Zubov, Sergey
Once the Bank of Russia lifted regulatory easing related to the pandemic, the quality of corporate loan portfolios of Russian banks did not deteriorate: the average level of past due debt remains stable and at a low level; the growth rate of corporate lending corresponds to the 2020 values; the interest rates dynamic is moderately volatile. At the same time, the increase in banks’ risk appetite in the context of economic recovery requires increased attention of the regulator to the quality of the bank’s corporate portfolio and the adequacy of risk accounting. Accumulated credit risks can become a source of problems for the banking system in the event of destabilization of the economic situation in the wake of epidemiological, political and other factors.

Doctors and Nurses Social Media Ads Reduced Holiday Travel and COVID-19 infections: A cluster randomized controlled trial in 13 States
Emily Breza,Fatima Cody Stanford,Marcela Alsan,M.D. Ph.D.,Burak Alsan,Abhijit Banerjee,Arun G. Chandrasekhar,Sarah Eichmeyer,Traci Glushko,Paul Goldsmith-Pinkham,Kelly Holland,Emily Hoppe,Mohit Karnani,Sarah Liegl,Tristan Loisel,Lucy Ogbu-Nwobodo,Benjamin A. Olken Carlos Torres,Pierre-Luc Vautrey,Erica Warner,Susan Wootton,Esther Duflo

During the COVID-19 epidemic, many health professionals started using mass communication on social media to relay critical information and persuade individuals to adopt preventative health behaviors. Our group of clinicians and nurses developed and recorded short video messages to encourage viewers to stay home for the Thanksgiving and Christmas Holidays. We then conducted a two-stage clustered randomized controlled trial in 820 counties (covering 13 States) in the United States of a large-scale Facebook ad campaign disseminating these messages. In the first level of randomization, we randomly divided the counties into two groups: high intensity and low intensity. In the second level, we randomly assigned zip codes to either treatment or control such that 75% of zip codes in high intensity counties received the treatment, while 25% of zip codes in low intensity counties received the treatment. In each treated zip code, we sent the ad to as many Facebook subscribers as possible (11,954,109 users received at least one ad at Thanksgiving and 23,302,290 users received at least one ad at Christmas). The first primary outcome was aggregate holiday travel, measured using mobile phone location data, available at the county level: we find that average distance travelled in high-intensity counties decreased by -0.993 percentage points (95% CI -1.616, -0.371, p-value 0.002) the three days before each holiday. The second primary outcome was COVID-19 infection at the zip-code level: COVID-19 infections recorded in the two-week period starting five days post-holiday declined by 3.5 percent (adjusted 95% CI [-6.2 percent, -0.7 percent], p-value 0.013) in intervention zip codes compared to control zip codes.

Dynamics of Disruption in Science and Technology
Michael Park,Erin Leahey,Russell Funk

Although the number of new scientific discoveries and technological inventions has increased dramatically over the past century, there have also been concerns of a slowdown in the progress of science and technology. We analyze 25 million papers and 4 million patents across 6 decades and find that science and technology are becoming less disruptive of existing knowledge, a pattern that holds nearly universally across fields. We link this decline in disruptiveness to a narrowing in the utilization of existing knowledge. Diminishing quality of published science and changes in citation practices are unlikely to be responsible for this trend, suggesting that this pattern represents a fundamental shift in science and technology.

Entitled to Property: Inheritance Laws, Female Bargaining Power, and Child Health in India
Shahadath Hossain,Plamen Nikolov

Child height is a significant predictor of human capital and economic status throughout adulthood. Moreover, non-unitary household models of family behavior posit that an increase in women's bargaining power can influence child health. We study the effects of an inheritance policy change, the Hindu Succession Act (HSA), which conferred enhanced inheritance rights to unmarried women in rural India, on child height. We find robust evidence that the HSA improved the height and weight of children. In addition, we find evidence consistent with a channel that the policy improved the women's intrahousehold bargaining power within the household, leading to improved parental investments for children. These study findings are also compatible with the notion that children do better when their mothers control a more significant fraction of the family. Therefore, policies that empower women can have additional positive spillovers for children's human capital.

Fairness in Credit Scoring: Assessment, Implementation and Profit Implications
Nikita Kozodoi,Johannes Jacob,Stefan Lessmann

The rise of algorithmic decision-making has spawned much research on fair machine learning (ML). Financial institutions use ML for building risk scorecards that support a range of credit-related decisions. Yet, the literature on fair ML in credit scoring is scarce. The paper makes three contributions. First, we revisit statistical fairness criteria and examine their adequacy for credit scoring. Second, we catalog algorithmic options for incorporating fairness goals in the ML model development pipeline. Last, we empirically compare different fairness processors in a profit-oriented credit scoring context using real-world data. The empirical results substantiate the evaluation of fairness measures, identify suitable options to implement fair credit scoring, and clarify the profit-fairness trade-off in lending decisions. We find that multiple fairness criteria can be approximately satisfied at once and recommend separation as a proper criterion for measuring the fairness of a scorecard. We also find fair in-processors to deliver a good balance between profit and fairness and show that algorithmic discrimination can be reduced to a reasonable level at a relatively low cost. The codes corresponding to the paper are available on GitHub.

Finance, Social Interactions, and Human Capital Development
Hu, Qing,Levine, Ross,Lin, Chen,Tai, Mingzhu
What is the impact of credit conditions on family interactions and children’s human capital development? We discover that regulatory reforms that ease credit conditions are associated with (1) increases in labor demand and the employment of mothers from low-income families, (2) decreases in parent-child discussions about school, reductions in parental supervision, and increases in children’s TV watching and video game playing among low-income families, and (3) declines in the time that children spend on homework and children’s academic performance among those same families. Effective substitutes for parent-child interactions, such as grandparents living in the household, mitigate these effects.

Financing Constraints, Home Equity and Selection into Entrepreneurship
Jensen, Thais Laerkholm,Leth‐Petersen, Søren,Nanda, Ramana
We exploit a mortgage reform that differentially unlocked home equity across the Danish population and study how this impacted selection into entrepreneurship. We find that increased entry was concentrated among entrepreneurs whose firms were founded in industries where they had no prior work experience. In addition, we find that marginal entrants benefiting from the reform had higher pre-entry earnings and that a significant share of entrants started longer-lasting firms. Our results are most consistent with the view that housing collateral enabled high ability individuals with less-well-established track records to overcome credit rationing and start new firms, rather than just leading to `frivolous entry' by those without prior industry experience.

Fines and progressive ideology promote social distancing
Edoardo Gallo,Darija Halatova,Alastair Langtry

Governments have used social distancing to stem the spread of COVID-19, but lack evidence on the most effective policy to ensure compliance. We examine the effectiveness of fines and informational messages (nudges) in promoting social distancing in a web-based interactive experiment conducted during the pandemic on a near-representative sample of the US population. Fines significantly promote distancing, but nudges only have a marginal impact. Political ideology also has a causal impact - progressives are more likely to practice distancing, and are marginally more responsive to fines. Further, individuals do more social distancing when they know they may be a superspreader. Our results highlight the role of web-based interactive experiments in informing governments on the causal impact of policies at a time when lab and/or field-based experimental research is not feasible.

Framing and Social Information Nudges at Wikipedia
Maximilian Linek,Christian Traxler

We analyze a series of trials that randomly assigned Wikipedia users in Germany to different web banners soliciting donations. The trials varied framing or content of social information about how many other users are donating. Framing a given number of donors in a negative way increased donation rates. Variations in the communicated social information had no detectable effects. The findings are consistent with the results from a survey experiment. In line with donations being strategic substitutes, the survey documents that the negative framing lowers beliefs about others' donations. Varying the social information, in contrast, is ineffective in changing average beliefs.

Geographical-Proximity Bias in P2B Crowdlending Strategies
Gresse, Carole,Marin, Hugo
Using data from a peer-to-business crowdlending platform that exploits an auction-driven system to fund corporate loans, we show that non-professional investors are subject to a geographical-proximity bias. They are more likely to win the auctions of borrowers located close to their place of residence notwithstanding that they are not better informed about their creditworthiness. Unexpectedly, this behavioral bias distorts the loan rate discovery process by increasing the cost of funding for borrowers. This adverse effect results from the greater ability of local investors to submit winning bids at an early stage. This ability is gained from their experience in previous auctions of geographically close borrowers. This suggests that the familiarity feeling stemming from geographical closeness strengthens investor attention, and thereby improves lenders’ knowledge about the dynamics of the order flow in local borrowers’ auctions.

Global Financial Crisis, COVID-19, Lockdown, and Herd Behavior in the US ESG Leader Stocks
Rubbaniy, Ghulame,Ali, Shoaib ,Siriopoulos, Costas,Samitas, Aristeidis
Using data of the constituents of the MSCI USA ESG leader index, this study investigates the herding behavior in the US ESG stocks over the period from January 03, 2007 to September 30, 2020. Our results reveal a significant herding behavior in the US ESG leader stocks. Our findings also show that herd effect is present in the US ESG stocks during both bear and bull market conditions. Our study documents the evidence of market-wide herding during the global financial crisis, COVID-19, lockdown, and post lockdown episodes. However, in all of these cases, herding is mainly characterized by intentional motives rather than fundamental factors. Finally, the outcome of our study has important implications for the investors, portfolio managers, and policy makers as herding can result in asset mispricing, adversely affecting portfolio diversification and adding to the market inefficiency.

Government Guarantee, Information Acquisition and Credit Rating Informativeness: Theory and Evidence from China
Fang, Hongyan,Li, Siguang,Luo, Ronghua,Wang, Yuyue
We examine the influence of implicit government guarantees on the information content of credit ratings in China, guided by a theoretical credit rating game model in the presence of government guarantees. Using issuers’ controlling shareholder identity as the defining metric of implicit government guarantees, we document a less sensitive relationship between credit ratings and primary market offer yields for SOE bonds (i.e., bonds issued by firms controlled by government or government related agencies) than that for non-SOE bonds. Moreover, ratings of non-SOE bonds have a stronger predictive power on both future downgrades and a market-based measure of issuer-expected default probability than those of SOE bonds. These findings are robust to considering the unobserved influence of the controlling shareholder identity on security pricing and bond default risk. Taken together, our empirical findings are consistent with the model’s prediction that government guarantees can dampen the incentives for credit rating agencies to acquire costly information, thus lowering the equilibrium informativeness of ratings for SOE bonds.

Measuring the Impact of the COVID-19 Pandemic on the Stock Market: Evidence from Bangladesh
Faruq, Mohammad Omar
Purpose: This study measures the impact of the bourse lockdown decision during COVID-19 pandemic on the stock market of Bangladesh.Design/ Methodology/ Approach: The top 30 blue-chip companies listed in the DS30 Index of the Dhaka Stock Exchange are used as the sample for this study. Panel data regression analysis is used to assess the impact for January to December during the year 2020. Finding: This study finds that COVID-19 significantly affect the stock market but does not show any negative relation to conclude. The Government imposed lockdown shows a negative relation with the stock market significantly. Firm-specific variables like daily market capitalization and book to market ratio show a significant negative relationship with the stock market. On the other hand, macroeconomic factors have a significantly positive impact on the stock market amid bourse lockdown.Originality: This study assesses the performance of the Bangladesh stock market by use of DS30 Index listed firms in response to the Government imposed bourse lockdown. This study provides unique insights into how the Bangladesh stock market reacted to the rare bourse lockdown decision during the pandemic. Practitioner implication: The findings of this study will help the regulators to identify whether the stock market performance was affected due to the COVID-19 pandemic, firm-specific factors or macroeconomic variables amid the lockdown. Research limitation: This study only considers the blue-chip companies listed in the Dhaka Stock Exchange.

Mechanism Design for Efficient Nash Equilibrium in Oligopolistic Markets
Kaiying Lin,Beibei Wang,Pengcheng You

This paper investigates the efficiency loss in social cost caused by strategic bidding behavior of individual participants in a supply-demand balancing market, and proposes a mechanism to fully recover equilibrium social optimum via subsidization and taxation. We characterize the competition among supply-side firms to meet given inelastic demand, with linear supply function bidding and the proposed efficiency recovery mechanism. We show that the Nash equilibrium of such a game exists under mild conditions, and more importantly, it achieves the underlying efficient supply dispatch and the market clearing price that reflects the truthful system marginal production cost. Further, the mechanism can be tuned to guarantee self-sufficiency, i.e., taxes collected counterbalance subsidies needed. Extensive numerical case studies are run to validate the equilibrium analysis, and we employ individual net profit and a modified version of Lerner index as two metrics to evaluate the impact of the mechanism on market outcomes by varying its tuning parameter and firm heterogeneity.

Multidimensional linear and nonlinear partial integro-differential equation in Bessel potential spaces with applications in option pricing
Daniel Sevcovic,Cyril Izuchukwu Udeani

The purpose of this paper is to analyze solutions of a non-local nonlinear partial integro-differential equation (PIDE) in multidimensional spaces. Such class of PIDE often arises in financial modeling. We employ the theory of abstract semilinear parabolic equations in order to prove existence and uniqueness of solutions in the scale of Bessel potential spaces. We consider a wide class of L\'evy measures satisfying suitable growth conditions near the origin and infinity. The novelty of the paper is the generalization of already known results in the one space dimension to the multidimensional case. We consider Black-Scholes models for option pricing on underlying assets following a L\'evy stochastic process with jumps. As an application to option pricing in the one-dimensional space, we consider a general shift function arising from nonlinear option pricing models taking into account a large trader stock-trading strategy. We prove existence and uniqueness of a solution to the nonlinear PIDE in which the shift function may depend on a prescribed large investor stock-trading strategy function.

Online Labour Index 2020: New ways to measure the world's remote freelancing market
Fabian Stephany,Otto Kässi,Uma Rani,Vili Lehdonvirta

The Online Labour Index (OLI) was launched in 2016 to measure the global utilisation of online freelance work at scale. Five years after its creation, the OLI has become a point of reference for scholars and policy experts investigating the online gig economy. As the market for online freelancing work matures, a high volume of data and new analytical tools allow us to revisit half a decade of online freelance monitoring and extend the index's scope to more dimensions of the global online freelancing market. In addition to measuring the utilisation of online labour across countries and occupations by tracking the number of projects and tasks posted on major English-language platforms, the new Online Labour Index 2020 (OLI 2020) also tracks Spanish- and Russian-language platforms, reveals changes over time in the geography of labour supply, and estimates female participation in the online gig economy. The rising popularity of software and tech work and the concentration of freelancers on the Indian subcontinent are examples of the insights that the OLI 2020 provides. The OLI 2020 delivers a more detailed picture of the world of online freelancing via an interactive online visualisation updated daily. It provides easy access to downloadable open data for policymakers, labour market researchers, and the general public (

Output, Employment, and Price Effects of U.S. Narrative Tax Changes: A Factor-Augmented Vector Autoregression Approach
Masud Alam

This paper examines the short- and long-run effects of U.S. federal personal income and corporate income tax cuts on a wide array of economic policy variables in a data-rich environment. Using a panel of U.S. macroeconomic data set, made up of 132 quarterly macroeconomic series for 1959-2018, the study estimates factor-augmented vector autoregression (FAVARs) models where an extended narrative tax changes dataset combined with unobserved factors. The narrative approach classifies if tax changes are exogenous or endogenous. This paper identifies narrative tax shocks in the vector autoregression model using the sign restrictions with Uhlig's (2005) penalty function. Empirical findings show a significant expansionary effect of tax cuts on the macroeconomic variables. Cuts in personal and corporate income taxes cause a rise in output, investment, employment, and consumption; however, cuts in personal taxes appear to be a more effective fiscal policy tool than the cut in corporate income taxes. Real GDP, employment, investment, and industrial production increase significantly and reach their maximum response values two years after personal income tax cuts. The effects of corporate tax cuts have relatively smaller effects on output and consumption but show immediate and higher effects on fixed investment and price levels.

Passive in a Name - Evidence from MSCI China Index and MSCI China Index-Tracking Fund
Hu, Zongrui
Abstract: Traditional research about the passive investors and index were mainly focus on the tracking error and the performance of mutual funds. However, they ignored that, deceptive by name, the passive investors, such as index-tracking funds and ETFs, may have an active impact on the value of the company through large-scale transactions of these passive investors. Focused on the Chinese stock market, this paper investigates whether specific passive investors, the funds and ETFs that track MSCI China index, will actively influence the market valuation after MSCI Index Rebalance. When the passive shareholders, which are always the mutual funds, exceeds a threshold, I find that firms added to the index will have a significant positive return, about X%, to the index itself. Also, I find the firms eliminated out to the index have a significant negative return, about X%, to the index itself. One potential interpretation of these results is that index-rebalancing will lead the index-trackers to buy those stocks added to the index, and these transactions represent a large buy power that will lead the demanding of those stocks to exceed the selling power and this dynamic of trading plus the following transactions of other investors eventually cause a premium and positive return. The firm size will also have an impact on stock performance when the index get rebalanced, partially in that the weight of the index is calculated according to the market value, a calculate method that leads to the higher weight of large companies. If large companies are added to or removed from the index, the trading volume will be larger, causing more transactions dynamic on those stocks.

Quantum Portfolio Optimization with Investment Bands and Target Volatility
Samuel Palmer,Serkan Sahin,Rodrigo Hernandez,Samuel Mugel,Roman Orus

In this paper we show how to implement in a simple way some complex real-life constraints on the portfolio optimization problem, so that it becomes amenable to quantum optimization algorithms. Specifically, first we explain how to obtain the best investment portfolio with a given target risk. This is important in order to produce portfolios with different risk profiles, as typically offered by financial institutions. Second, we show how to implement individual investment bands, i.e., minimum and maximum possible investments for each asset. This is also important in order to impose diversification and avoid corner solutions. Quite remarkably, we show how to build the constrained cost function as a quadratic binary optimization (QUBO) problem, this being the natural input of quantum annealers. The validity of our implementation is proven by finding the optimal portfolios, using D-Wave Hybrid and its Advantage quantum processor, on static portfolios taking assets from S&P100 and S&P500. Our results show how practical daily constraints found in quantitative finance can be implemented in a simple way in current NISQ quantum processors, with real data, and under realistic market conditions. In combination with clustering algorithms, our methods would allow to replicate the behaviour of more complex indexes, such as Nasdaq Composite or others, in turn being particularly useful to build and replicate Exchange Traded Funds (ETF).

Regulation and Stock Market Quality: The Impact of MiFID II Provision on Research Unbundling
Anselmi, Giulio,Petrella, Giovanni
This paper investigates the effects produced by the unbundling of analyst research costs required by MiFID II on market quality, as measured by stock liquidity and price efficiency. We find that the payment of an explicit price for research is associated with a reduction in analyst coverage in the EU. Unexpectedly, the reduction is stronger for large-cap stocks. For mid- and large-cap stocks analyst coverage in the EU is still greater than in the US. The reduction in analyst coverage observed in the EU is part of a downward trend that initiated prior to MiFID II and contributes to close the gap between the two regions. We also find no change in the bid-ask spread for small-, mid- and large-cap stocks, and a slight increase for micro-cap stocks. We observe no significant change in price efficiency. Taken together our findings seem to suggest that there was an overproduction of research in Europe with the previous regulatory regime. However, the growth of passive management and index funds may also explain the observed decrease in coverage.

Residual-Based Nodewise Regression in Factor Models with Ultra-High Dimensions: Analysis of Mean-Variance Portfolio Efficiency and Estimation of Out-of-Sample and Constrained Maximum Sharpe Ratios
Mehmet Caner,Marcelo Medeiros,Gabriel Vasconcelos

We provide a new theory for nodewise regression when the residuals from a fitted factor model are used to apply our results to the analysis of the maximum Sharpe ratio when the number of assets in a portfolio is larger than its time span. We introduce a new hybrid model where factor models are combined with feasible nodewise regression. Returns are generated from an increasing number of factors plus idiosyncratic components (errors). The precision matrix of the idiosyncratic terms is assumed to be sparse, but the respective covariance matrix can be non-sparse. Since the nodewise regression is not feasible due to the unknown nature of errors, we provide a feasible-residual-based nodewise regression to estimate the precision matrix of errors as a new method. Next, we show that the residual-based nodewise regression provides a consistent estimate for the precision matrix of errors. In another new development, we also show that the precision matrix of returns can be estimated consistently, even with an increasing number of factors. Benefiting from the consistency of the precision matrix estimate of returns, we show that: (1) the portfolios in high dimensions are mean-variance efficient; (2) maximum out-of-sample Sharpe ratio estimator is consistent and the number of assets slows the convergence up to a logarithmic factor; (3) the maximum Sharpe ratio estimator is consistent when the portfolio weights sum to one; and (4) the Sharpe ratio estimators are consistent in global minimum-variance and mean-variance portfolios.

Self-respecting worker in the gig economy: A dynamic principal-agent model
Zsolt Bihary,Péter Csóka,Péter Kerényi,Alexander Szimayer

We introduce a dynamic principal-agent model to understand the nature of contracts between an employer and an independent gig worker. We model the worker's self-respect with an endogenous participation constraint; he accepts a job offer if and only if its utility is at least as large as his reference value, which is based on the average of previously realized wages. If the dynamically changing reference value capturing the worker's demand is too high, then no contract is struck until the reference value hits a threshold. Below the threshold, contracts are offered and accepted, and the worker's wage demand follows a stochastic process. We apply our model to different labor market structures and investigate first-best and second-best solutions. We show that a far-sighted employer may sacrifice instantaneous profit to regulate the agent's demand. Employers who can afford to stall production due to a lower subjective discount rate will obtain higher profits. Our model captures the worker's bargaining power by a vulnerability parameter that measures the rate at which his wage demand decreases when unemployed. With a low vulnerability parameter, the worker can afford to go unemployed and need not take a job at all costs. Conversely, a worker with high vulnerability can be exploited by the employer, and in this case our model also exhibits self-exploitation.

Semi-metric portfolio optimization: a new algorithm reducing simultaneous asset shocks
Nick James,Max Menzies,Jennifer Chan

This paper proposes a new method for financial portfolio optimization based on reducing simultaneous asset shocks across a collection of assets. We apply recently introduced semi-metrics between finite sets to determine the distance between time series' structural breaks. Then, we build on the classical portfolio optimization theory of Markowitz and use this distance between asset structural breaks for our penalty function, rather than portfolio variance. Our experiments are promising: on synthetic data, we show that our proposed method does indeed diversify among time series with highly similar structural breaks, and enjoys advantages over existing metrics between sets. On real data, experiments illustrate that our proposed optimization method produces higher risk-adjusted returns than mean-variance portfolio optimization. Moreover, the predictive distribution is superior in every measure analyzed, producing a higher mean, lower standard deviation and lower kurtosis. The main implication for this method in portfolio management is reducing simultaneous asset shocks and potentially sharp associated drawdowns during periods of highly similar structural breaks, such as a market crisis.

Singularity Universe or Parallel Universes? â€" MSP Theory (Multiple Singular and Parallel Theory)
Challoumis Κωνσταντίνος Χαλλουμής, Constantinos
This paper analyzes the issue of the singularity universe and parallel universes. Multiple universes exist, as presented in the work “Is It Plausible to Have Universes Inside Universes - The Interuniversal Numbers”. The interuniversal numbers show that every universe has a singularity structure, but parallel cases. This means that making a time travel any change causes changes to all the space-time patterns. Then, it is not plausible to go to another point of space-time and this to happen to multiple universes. The parallel universes are different cases of the same universe and then we live a different case of reality. The reason for this is the singularity. Without singularity, it is not plausible to have multiple universes. But, parallel universes are inactive cases of the current universe, and the only way to break them is by following the way described in the paper “Time travel - According to Mathematical Axiomatic Physics”

Supportive 5G Infrastructure Policies are Essential for Universal 6G: Assessment using an Open-source Techno-economic Simulation Model utilizing Remote Sensing
Edward J. Oughton,Ashutosh Jha

Work has now begun on the sixth generation of cellular technologies (`6G`) and cost-efficient global broadband coverage is already becoming a key pillar. Indeed, we are still far from providing universal and affordable broadband connectivity, despite this being a key part of the Sustainable Development Goals (Target 9.c). Currently, both Mobile Network Operators and governments still lack independent analysis of the strategies that can help achieve this target with the cellular technologies available (4G and 5G). Therefore, this paper undertakes quantitative assessment demonstrating how current 5G policies affect universal broadband, as well as drawing conclusions over how decisions made now affect future evolution to 6G. Using a method based on an open-source techno-economic codebase, combining remote sensing with least-cost network algorithms, performance analytics are provided for different 4G and 5G universal broadband strategies. As an example, the assessment approach is applied to India, the world`s second-largest mobile market and a country with very high spectrum prices. The results demonstrate the trade-offs between technological decisions. This includes demonstrating how important current infrastructure policy is, particularly given fiber backhaul will be essential for delivering 6G quality of service. We find that by eliminating the spectrum licensing costs, 100% 5G population coverage can viably be achieved using fiber backhaul. Therefore, supportive infrastructure policies are essential in providing a superior foundation for evolution to future cellular generation, such as 6G.

The Bright Side of Transparency: Evidence from Supervisory Capital Requirements
Abidi, Nordine,Miquel-Flores, Ixart,Vandeweyer, Quentin
Should regulators disclose private information about the creditworthiness of the companies it supervises? This paper exploits a change in the disclosure policy of the European Central Bank (ECB) in 2020 to make progress on this question. We compare European banks along multiple dimensions before and after the ECB published for the first time bank-by-bank information on Pillar 2 requirements (P2R). We show that bond prices and cross-border holdings of debt securities are sensitive to new regulatory information as well as to rating gaps between the ECB and private credit rating agencies. Overall, our results support the view that supervisors have specific, distinctive, and valuable knowledge of the banks they supervise.

The Economic Influence on Consumers Buying Behavior in Islamic Countries: Evidence from the COVID-19 Economic Crisis
Mukit, Mohammad Mushfiqul Haque,Nabila, Nusrat Jahan,Abdel-Razzaq, Assim Ibrahim,Shaznin, Kazi Fatema
The COVID-19 pandemic has ushered in a new age in the world. We are still grappling with the implications in various areas of our everyday lives. The impulsive buying habits of consumers, the supply chain, and the whole industry are not exceptions. Consumers and supply chains were both unprepared during the early stages of the novel Coronavirus pandemic. The procurement of utilitarian products was referred to as panic buying. The study examined using exploratory studies on several individuals in the eight selected Islamic countries who have been panic buying in coronavirus-affected areas and have faced regional constraints. The data apply on exploratory factor analysis (EFA) in eight selected Islamic countries, three hundred samples finally selected, and a good number of volunteers supported this study. The results have shown that a drastic financial effect on the economy where purchasing power and remittance inflow declined, inflation goes up and precaution for lockdown, whereas impulsive buying goods tendency increased due to misinformation, and panic buying immensely impact in the economy. The decision-making process has shifted, preventing financial burdening, rising saving patterns, and unwelcoming unhealthy consumption. Moreover, visible psychological distress, depression, anxiety, and post-traumatic stress. These studies concluded with a policy recommendation providing the results.

The Knowledge Mobility of Renewable Energy Technology
P.G.J. Persoon,R.N.A. Bekkers,F. Alkemade

In the race to achieve climate goals, many governments and organizations are encouraging the regional development of Renewable Energy Technology (RET). The spatial dynamics and successful regional development of a technology partly depends on the characteristics of the knowledge base on which this technology builds, in particular the analyticity and cumulativeness of knowledge. In this study we systematically evaluate these knowledge base characteristics for a set of 13 different RETs. We find that, while several RETs (photovoltaics, fuel-cells, energy storage) have a highly analytic knowledge base and develop more widespread, there are also important RETs (wind turbines, solar thermal, geothermal and hydro energy) for which the knowledge base is less analytic and which develop less widespread. Likewise, the technological cumulativeness tends to be lower for the former than for the latter group. This calls for regional policies to be specific for different RETs, taking for a given RET into account both the type of knowledge it builds on as well as the local presence of this knowledge.

The efficient frontiers of mean-variance portfolio rules under distribution misspecification
Andrew Paskaramoorthy,Tim Gebbie,Terence van Zyl

Mean-variance portfolio decisions that combine prediction and optimisation have been shown to have poor empirical performance. Here, we consider the performance of various shrinkage methods by their efficient frontiers under different distributional assumptions to study the impact of reasonable departures from Normality. Namely, we investigate the impact of first-order auto-correlation, second-order auto-correlation, skewness, and excess kurtosis. We show that the shrinkage methods tend to re-scale the sample efficient frontier, which can change based on the nature of local perturbations from Normality. This re-scaling implies that the standard approach of comparing decision rules for a fixed level of risk aversion is problematic, and more so in a dynamic market setting. Our results suggest that comparing efficient frontiers has serious implications which oppose the prevailing thinking in the literature. Namely, that sample estimators out-perform Stein type estimators of the mean, and that improving the prediction of the covariance has greater importance than improving that of the means.